This is a short post, but it’s one I’ve been thinking about for a while.
Lately I’ve succumbed to the trend of labeling certain gardening and landscape-design practices as being permaculture or permaculture-like, and I realized that a) the term isn’t particularly descriptive and b) there is a certain quality to the permaculture community that has confused me that I’d like to describe a bit further.
As for issue a): the term permaculture is now used to mean everything and nothing, including ordinary organic gardening, earthworks, perennial agriculture, local currency systems, and much, much more. It’s starting to be hard for me to keep track. Part of this stems from the generality (and vagueness) of the core permaculture principles, and part of it is a bandwagon effect, in which people are using the term because it’s gaining widespread popularity, thereby making it more popular. A key aspect of what is often called permaculture is really agroecology. While agroecology may not be a better-defined term, it as least has a more limited scope.
Issue b) is a sensitive topic, but it’s my sense that there’s a certain closedness to permaculture — there are remarkably few books that really get into the details on permaculture, especially given its popularity. Hemenway’s Gaia’s Garden is still the only explicitly-categorized permaculture book that I find myself referencing regularly and recommending to others. Most of the original Mollison and Holmgren writing is too disorganized and sometimes even a bit questionable, and few other leaders in the field provide sufficient actionable detail about their methods (consider, for example, the books by Holzer, Bane, and others). While I understand, in general, the value of taking a permaculture design course, not everyone can afford (in the sense of money or time) to take one, nor should the knowledge be closed off to those who don’t, as some people don’t learn well in such environments anyway. Beyond the courses, there are now permaculture conferences that are extraordinarily expensive. Personally, I’ve found that I get a lot more out of digging into lots of books, talking to other gardeners who are doing something I’d like to try, and then just trying out new techniques. Some of these experiments fail, but it’s that trial and error that I find valuable. I often find myself wondering why more isn’t known about what works and what doesn’t, or more likely why such knowledge isn’t shared.
I do believe that new terms can have meaning when an effort is made to define them clearly but also when they aren’t held tightly, as in my discussion of terraforming. So going forward I won’t explicitly avoid the term permaculture (or terms like it) but I will prefer agroecology and similar terminology where possible.